This area is dedicated to the reports and articles by CEPS researchers dedicated to the economic recovery of the EU,
particularly those actions using EU recovery funds

The RRF’s role in strengthening active labour market policies and PES: IT, ES and HR

Study that analyses the measures addressing Pillar 4 (social and territorial cohesion) of the RRF. It focuses on two policy domains: ALMP and PES. The study zooms in on the reforms and investments included in the RRF plans of three EU Member States (Italy, Spain and Croatia) and assesses their relevance, effectiveness and coherence.

Recovery and Resilience Facility: What are we really monitoring with a performance-based approach?

CEPS Explainer on the limits of the new performance-based approach of the RRF and some reflections on milestones and targets to make the RRF a success story.

Substitution effects, delays, constraints and administrative capacity risk on Cohesion and NGEU/RRF

Published in the Court of Auditors Journal and written by Jorge Núñez and Tomas Ruiz. There is a big gap between what the expected and the delivery. The why and steps to address it.

The Recovery and Resilience Facility: Boosting Investment in Social Infrastructure in Europe?

RRF is expected to help boost investment in social infrastructure. This article investigates if the social investments are truly additional in six countries.

Where the (euro) buck stops Facing the next big crisis with a better EU budget

The EU budget’s current financial architecture is inappropriate to address the various crises it faces. This Policy Brief presents immediate actions to raise overall funding and to address the impacts of the war in Ukraine with unspent EU funds. It also calls for longer term reforms.

The European added value of the Recovery and Resilience Facility

In-depth analysis of the National Recovery and Resilience Plans (NRRPs) of Austria, Belgium, and Germany. Exploiting a detailed database and building on semi-structured interviews, we find that all are aligned with RRF Regulation but differ greatly in terms of additionality.

Report for the European Parliament on Reforming the Financial Regulation

The rules governing the EU budget are not fit for the modern challenges facing the European Union and the emerging demands and expectations placed on the EU, this report discusses the dysfunctions and the needed reforms in the Financial Regulation 

Comparing and assessing recovery plans of BE, AT, SP, PT, IT, FR, DE, and SK (2nd edition)

Standardised analysis approach evaluating the programmes based on needs of the countries. It presents the Plans of the member states under a different light. Individual country sheets below on this page.

The Recovery and Resilience Facility - A springboard for a renaissance of public investment in Euro

The analysis checks if there is a significant relationship between the total amount of RRF grants (in terms of the percentage of GDP) and an acceleration in public investment. Unfortunately the results are disappointing.


Comparing and assessing recovery plans of Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, Germany and Slovakia

Standardised analysis approach evaluating the programmes based on needs of the countries. It presents the Plans of the member states under a different light.

Public investment or fiscal consolidation after Covid-19? The extreme case of Italy and Germany

This analysis compares the NRRPs of Germany and Italy, two countries that have very different views and priorities on how their allocation of the recovery funds should be spent and invested over the short, medium and long-term.

Money allocation is not the key to recovery and resilience, reforms are.

In-brief on the key reforms needed behind the RRF.

Steering and Monitoring the Recovery and Resilience Plans - Reading between the lines

The Commission’s power to steer and monitor the National Recovery and Resilience Plans. Opportunities and Challenges


Assessing Reforms in the National Recovery and Resilience Plans: Italy

Detailed assessment of Italy

Avoiding the Main Risks in the Recovery Plans of Member States

This report sets out some of the main risks to the success of the recovery programmes. The report also presents a number of solutions to ensure that aspects critical to the recovery programmes are implemented.

Country analysis data sheets

Austria - CEPS Assessment (pdf)

Belgium - CEPS Assessment (pdf)

France - CEPS Assessment (pdf)

Germany - CEPS Assessment (pdf)

Italy - CEPS Assessment (pdf)

Portugal - CEPS Assessment (pdf)

Slovakia - CEPS Assessment (pdf)

Spain - CEPS Assessment (pdf)